The parasite of communism preyed upon societies weakened by poverty and unstable institutions. American ideology has received less attention, but the arguments of this new scholarship implied a role for American ideology as well.
Each calculated his and they were all men options and reactions carefully and rationally and shared similar goals of ensuring territorial security and increasing state power.
But American policymakers also feared the spread of communism into Greece and believed that from Greece the contagion would almost certainly spread to Italy and France. The tone of the speech created a dissonant echo amidst the increasingly hard-line atmosphere of official Washington. But the conflicts were precisely that: Ideology thus seemed to have returned to a central place in the analysis of the Cold War.
By autumn the language and content of the Clifford-Elsey report was emblematic of the emerging consensus held by official Washington. Instead, American policymakers acted out of fear for American security.
The Soviet Union represented a clear threat to American values and to freedom at home and abroad. But his apparent support for a Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europe set off a firestorm of controversy.
This conflict came as the inevitable out-growth of World War II and particularly the power vacuum in central Europe resulting from the destruction of Germany. This is not to say that the superpowers did not distrust one another, or that there were not very real conflicts of interest between them.
Kennan argued that Soviet policy could not be changed by talk; it was "highly sensitive to the logic of force. At the same time, these fears warred with traditional American ambivalence toward European affairs and intervention abroad.
A student of Williams, Gardner similarly finds tragedy amidst the ruins of American policy. Soviet and American leaders in the postwar period understood this reality, and far from being influenced by ideology pursued their interests with cool calculation.
Two studies of the Johnson administration illustrate this disjunction clearly. For Kennan and Lippmann both, ideology influenced not only Soviet but also American policymakers.
The city on a hill must become the leader of the free world.
Once the superpowers reached a settlement on Germany, which Trachtenberg argues occurred inthe Cold War was for all intents and purposes over.
Ironically, he failed to realize the degree to which his own worldview was shot through with "the red skein" of ideology. In this period the Soviets unsuccessfully blockaded the Western-held sectors of West Berlin —49 ; the United States and its European allies formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATOa unified military command to resist the Soviet presence in Europe ; the Soviets exploded their first atomic warheadthus ending the American monopoly on the atomic bomb; the Chinese communists came to power in mainland China ; and the Soviet-supported communist government of North Korea invaded U.
And like Wilson in Mexico, American policymakers throughout the postwar period attempted to curb the radicalism of social change and to intervene on behalf of self-determination. Soviet forces had invaded Czechoslovakia to crush the reform movement known as the Prague Spring.
Truman and his key advisers defined the Soviet Union in explicitly ideological terms.This collection focuses on the ideals that formed the basis of American policy toward the Soviet Union during the early years of the Cold War.
The collection includes 57 documents totaling pages covering the years through Cold War Essay. The Cold War began as World War II was ending.
American leaders saw the power and ambitions of the Soviet Union as a threat to our national security. The Cold War was a war of words and ideologies rather than a shooting war, although at times the Cold War turned “hot” as in Korea and Vietnam. Economic systems, or contrasting ideas about ideology, morality, and human nature, are only occasionally included in student written definitions of the Cold War.
In response, I developed this special segment on the Cold War. During the Cold War, and particularly in the United States, ideological context conditioned foreign policy outcomes. Ideology defined the issues at stake. For Americans the issue at stake became the survival of freedom, and Soviet communism became the primary threat.
Following World War II, many of the most powerful countries were extremely weakened - Cold War Ideology and Policies introduction. This weakness caused France, Germany, and Great Britain, to lose most of their power both militarily and economically.
The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was had to profess fanatic adherence to the Party's line and ideology - if not, those policies would fail.
De-Stalinization the only viable solution was dictatorship since the war was heading into a final conflict between the "progressive forces of.Download